Poultry Dishes – Lesson 1. Red Curry Chicken Leg with Mushrooms.

A warning to my vegetarian friends, this post has photos of boned and jointed chicken. 

It’s the start of a new block of lessons with a new Chef. I like the way Chef Michael set the tone straight up-front by sharing his two basic expectations; we respond to him when he gives an instruction (yes Chef!) and we follow that instruction immediately…. no problem! Having 25 years of experience behind him, including being an Executive Chef at a two hatted restaurant, it was evident that he runs a tight kitchen from the get-go, it was also obvious that he has a sense of fun, enjoys teaching and is a hands-on teacher….what’s not to like! Chef shared tips throughout the class and I tried to capture all of them. At this stage his focus is primarily on us picking up the technical skill & not on food presentation. That makes prefect sense, but I still try to think about how I would present a dish.

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New Chef – gone high tech!

I have been looking forward to the more technical lessons…and they have finally arrived! The first poultry lesson included; breaking down two chickens, boning out Chicken Marylands, making Chicken Ballontine, preparing and baking un-split chicken breast on the bone, making a tasty Red Chicken Leg Curry with Mushrooms, and a lesson on making duck fat (think I will continue to buy it already made!). It was a busy class which started at 7.30 am and ended at 1.30pm with no break…but we did get to eat some of our finished dishes and I loved every minute.

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Ok it’s time…a chicken (or 2), me and my boning knife!

The first chicken we jointed sautĂ©… removing the wings, jointing the legs and thigh into a Maryland cut and removing the breast from the bone … resulting in a bounty for the stock pot. The Maryland was boned and the chicken breast skinned. First tip is always remove the wishbone before jointing the chicken…makes it so much easier!

For the Chicken Ballontine, chicken breasts & eggs whites were blended until smooth in a cold food processor. Cream was gradually added to the chicken mix to emulsify and seasoning added. The golden rule with seasoning any charcuterie is the percentage of salt is 2% of the volume (in this case of the chicken, cream & egg whites). Added to the mix was finely diced celery and finely cut dried cranberries. Using a piping bag the mixture was piped into the boned Maryland and rolled in plastic. There was more farce than needed so I also made a boudin blanc.These were steamed and then cooked on the stove top until browned. You will notice in the fry pan is a cartouche… this assists in ensuring the ballontines don’t stick.

Chicken breast is very lean & easily dries out when roasted. The classic solution is to lard the bird, which is to cover the meat in bacon (or better still prosciutto). The bacon is secured using kitchen string…. did you know if when you are making the initial tie you loop the string not once but twice, the string will grip and make it easier to stay firm? To ensure it is safe to eat, chicken should be baked until 74 degrees celsius. With the exception of the jointing, which will take practice, this was very straight forward. I see a lot of practice in the weeks ahead.

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Chicken on the breast bone.

The last dish was the Red Chicken Curry (recipe below).  The red curry paste in this version is pre-made. If like me you are a bit of a puritan when it comes to cooking (hey no judgment…at least I’m aware), you can find recipes for the paste on the internet…but let it be known there are some pretty good ready made ones on the market. The important thing is to taste before adding the sugar towards the end…depending on the red curry paste you may need to hold some back. Steamed Jasmin rice was the accompaniment and Chef gave a fool proof method to cook a small amount of rice. Rinse the rice to remove the starch, you will know when this has been achieved as the water will run clear. Add the rinsed rice to boiling water, once it comes back to the boil simmer for 11 minutes. Remove from heat, strain and return to the pot and cover with foil. It can sit for several minutes…just run a fork through it and you will find it well cooked and fluffy.


Red Chicken curry with Mushrooms and Steamed Jasmin Rice.

It was a great class and I am looking forward to the weekend when I can practice some of the techniques I learned. I haven’t heard back as yet from the restaurant I approached re the mandatory kitchen experience but I haven’t given up hope. I am sure if this one doesn’t come off  something else will present itself … it all feels just too right not to work out. There is a break next week, and the following week we will work with Duck and Quail. I hope to see you back….until then!

Bon Appetit

Kathryn đŸ’™đŸ‘©â€đŸł

Red Chicken leg Curry with Steamed Jasmin Rice
Prep Time
10 mins
Cook Time
45 mins
Total Time
55 mins

This is a tasty dish but it does use a pre-made red curry sauce. I would usually make my own spice paste, but using a superior paste and adjusting it to suit your taste result in a very satisfying dish.

Servings: 2 people
  • 2 Chicken Maryland (skin on)
  • 20 mls Vegetable Oil
  • 20 gm Red Curry Paste
  • 660 mls Coconut Cream
  • 100 gas Button Mushrooms
  • 30 gm Palm Sugar This may be too much depending on the paste. Add 3/4 to start and taste when all ingredients are added. Taste and add more to suit taste if required.
  • 30 gm Fresh Lime Juice
  • 30 mls Fish Sauce
  • 1/2 Onion - fine dice
  • Corriander Stems - several - finely cut
  • Corriander leaves
  • 200 gm Jasmin Rice
  1. Cut the Maryland into thigh and drumstick. Add half the oil to a hot pan and then add the chicken. Sauté to colour the skin. Remove from the pan.

  2. Add the remaining oil and cook off the onion & corriander stems to soften (no colour). Add the curry paste and cook out until aromatic. Add the coconut cream and bring to boil. 

  3. Reduce the heat, add the chicken and mushrooms. Cook for 30 mins.

  4. Add the 3/4 of the palm sugar, fish sauce & lime juice. Cook for 5 mins and taste - adjust as required, i.e., more palm sugar etc.  Add the chopped corriander leaves.

  5. Cook until the desired consistency and serve 1 drum stick and 1 thigh with cooked Jasmin Rice. Garnish with a few corriander leaves and a wedge of lime.




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Vegetables, Fruit, Eggs & Farinaceous Dishes – Lesson 3. Arancini with Mozzarella

This was the last class in this block of lessons and the last class with Chef Troy, next week I start on Poultry with a new Chef. This weeks recipes were examples of what I enjoy cooking, and the finished dishes worked out just right (unlike last week). Mushroom Risotto, Vegetable and Chick-pea Tagine with Cous-Cous, Chicken and Ginger ConsommĂ© with Rice Noodle and Mozzarella stuffed Arancini…..deee – licious! As always the lessons build on each other….each class reinforcing prior learnings, e.g clarifying and flavouring stock to make a consommĂ©.

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Todays Lesson – lots to do!

We started with the consommĂ© as the clarification process takes two hours… but it’s well worth the effort. After mixing the raft (having chopped the vegetables in a food processor), it was added to the cold stock and cooked over a very low heat with barely any movement. When the raft is initially added to the cold stock, it’s important to stir it for a minute or so to ensure it doesn’t float down & stick to the bottom. Once it comes up to a simmer, stop stirring and simply allow the raft to form, ensure the heat is vey low &  allow the stock to gently simmer underneath. Before the raft was added, the stock was flavoured with some finely grated ginger, soy sauce, five spice and crushed Szechuan peppercorns. To the vegetables which made up the raft (carrots, celery, onion) we added two cloves of crushed garlic and two finely chopped birds-eye chillies. Once clarified, the consommĂ© was gently filtered from the raft and a little brown sugar (20g) and some sesame oil (10 mls) was added. On tasting I found there was enough soy flavour but it did need a touch of salt…always taste, taste, taste when cooking. The finished dish was served in a bowl which had at the base cooked rice noodles, topped with blanched Asian greens (Bon Choy) and shredded poached chicken breast. Finally the consommĂ© was added and some garnish….mmmm!

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Making a clarifying raft

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Chicken & Ginger Consommé with Rice noodles.

As some of the risotto was to be used to make the arancini later in the class, that was the next recipe. I love risotto and Mushroom Risotto is one of my favourites. People shy away from making it due to the constant stirring it requires, but I find that quite relaxing. The recipe I always go back to is in the first ‘River Cafe Cook Book’ by Ruth Gray and Ruth Rogers. The River Cafe is an English icon and the restaurant where the delightful Jamie Oliver started out. My copy of this favourite cookbook was a birthday gift many years ago from my lovely friend Amanda who is a fabulous cook and an amazing chocolatier.



Mushroom Risotto – all it needs is a drizzle of good olive oil

In prior posts I have shared my enjoyment of North African cooking and the Tagine. The recipe we cooked in class was lovely, perfect for a vegetarian alternative and could be raised to a higher level with the addition of saffron. In my view all recipes provide a basis from which you can put your personal stamp on a dish, and in my case I would add steeped saffron to this one.  I am happy to share the recipe if anyone is interested.


A Tagine!

The last dish of the day was the arancini. As I served myself only a small dish of the risotto for lunch (benefits of the class) there was quite a lot left, which was flattened out in a tray and cooled in the fridge for the arancini. I estimate the amount was around 320 grams but I don’t think it really matters, the more risotto you have the more mozzarella you will need and the more arancini you can make. I have included the recipe below so won’t go through it here. I have been thinking of other risottos which I will make and turn into arancini ….the classic Risotto Milanese with it’s saffron flavour will be next for sure.

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Arancini..I dare you to stop at one !

Next week we start on three weeks of Poultry dishes to which I am looking forward.  Also, hopefully in the next few days I will hear back from a local restaurant who I have approached for the mandatory kitchen experience. It is a very nice restaurant and one whose menu I really like. Where as I will lose some of my free time on weekends, I am sure I will enjoy it and it will bring me closer to completing my training and provide a new learning experience. Wish me luck!

Bon Appetit

Kathryn đŸ’™đŸ‘©â€đŸł

Arancini with Mozzarella
Prep Time
10 mins
Cook Time
8 mins
Total Time
18 mins

Seldom is there any Risotto left-over in my house, but if you ever do, these are great and have an oozy cheesy middle. Any Risotto will work - the ones in the photo were made from mushroom risotto. The number you can make depends on how much risotto you have left over. I made 8 form approximately 320g of left -over risotto. More or less will result depending on the size you roll. The prep time assumes you have some cold risotto ready to go!

Course: Appetizer
Cuisine: Italian
Keyword: Rice
  • 320 gm Cold Risotto
  • 50 gm Mozzarella
  • 2 55g Eggs
  • 100 gm Plain (all purpose) Flour
  • 100 ml Milk - full cream
  • 150 g Bread crumbs (I used Panko)
  1. Roll the cold risotto into *8 evenly sized balls 

  2. Make a hole/pocket in the ball of risotto and place a piece of Mozzarella into the middle. Close up and using the palm of your hand mould into slightly egg shape.

  3. Make an egg wash by mixing the eggs and milk.

  4. Lay out the flour, the egg wash and the breadcrumbs on a row.

  5. Roll the arancini through the flour, then the egg wash, then the bread crumbs. 

  6. Place the arancini in the fridge until required. Deep fry at 180 degrees celsius until golden brown. Serve hot.



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Vegetables, Fruit, Eggs & Farinaceous Dishes – Lesson 2. Mushroom & Soft Polenta

A very late post of this weeks class – what can I say ….life! Balancing a full time job, studying and trying to practice leaves little time to sit and reflect, but I remind myself that reflection is essential to learn and grow. To be honest, this weeks class was not my best…. I’m not sure why, I can only put it down to not being fully present. I made silly mistakes, but looking for the positives, I learned from them!


Week Two – Vegetables, Fruit, Eggs and Farinaceous Dishes

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Lots of Butter!

The recipes today were straight forward, and nothing I haven’t cooked in my own kitchen. Had I brought my brain along with my body it would have been a snap…but unfortunately 😳. The first mistake was I added ALL the polenta to the cake mix, rather than 85g, retaining 50g for the mushroom dish. Where as my finished product looked good – I can assure you it was not. The rhubarb and the strawberry pattern on the base of the cake, which after baking was inverted to be the top, was lovely…however the cake was inedible due to the error.

The curd in the photo of the finished plate is not mine. My mistake, one which chef was in awe of and actually brought another chef in from the class next door to witness, was that I over whisked the eggs and the result was what I *think* was an lemon Italian Meringue….it tasted lovely but was not what was required. Live and learn!


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Polenta Cake, Roasted Rhubarb and Strawberries with lemon curd

The soft polenta and mushroom on the other hand was perfect. An easy and tasty dish – prefect for ‘Meatless Mondays’ and any other occasion requiring a tasty, meat free dish.

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Mushrooms with Polenta and Poached Egg

I know that one ‘bad’ day doesn’t define me but rather it provides an opportunity to learn. Like the challenges I had with hollandaise sauce…having now practiced over the past three weeks, which has made a very happy husband, I think I’ve got it. It just goes to show that perseverance makes all the difference, and not to give up when things don’t turn out right the first time.

Bon Appetit

Kathryn đŸ’™đŸ‘©â€đŸł

Mushrooms with Polenta

The meaty texture and umami flavour of this mushroom 'ragu' makes a lovely marriage with this cheesy soft polenta. Great for 'Meatless Monday's' or any other day vegetarian food is on the menu!

Course: Main Course
Cuisine: Italian
Keyword: Mushrooms, Polenta,
Servings: 2 people
  • 50 gm Swiss Brown Mushrooms
  • 50 gm Oyster Mushrooms
  • 60 gm Button Mushrooms
  • 30 gm Butter
  • 2 cloves Garlic - crushed
  • 1/2 Onion - small dice
  • 1/4 bunch Thyme - fresh
  • 1 Bay leaf - dried
  • 50 ml White wine
  • 50 ml White Stock - Vegetable or chicken
  • 1/4 bunch Parsley - leaves only
  • 165 ml Water
  • 165 ml Milk
  • 50 gm Polenta
  • 25 gm Butter
  • 20 gm Parmesan Cheese - grated
  • 10 gm salt
  • 2 Eggs
  • 50 ml White vinegar
  1. In a frypan add butter, onion and garlic. Cook to translucent and add the mushrooms. 

  2. Add the wine to deglaze. When the wine has evaporated by half, add the stock, bayleaf and thyme. Season to taste. Keep warm.

  3. Mix the water and the milk and bring to medium heat  - bring to boil.

  4. Rain in the polenta, whisking constantly and cook until grainy mixture is gone. Mix I the butter and the cheese.

  5. Place the polenta on a warm plate and top with mushrooms. Drizzle with some good olive oil and add the poached egg. Garnish with parsley.

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Vegetables, Fruit, Eggs and Farinaceous Dishes – Lesson 1. Rice Pilaff Recipe

Chef Troy has taken over from Chef Robyn who sadly will be leaving the college to pursue new adventures outside TAFE. The pace is not as frantic this week, although there are quite a few components to each dish and as always we are building on knowledge and skills from previous lessons.

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Vegetables, Fruit & Farinaceous Dishes – Board of Lesson 1

Farinaceous dishes are those made from starchy flours, pulses cereals and starchy vegetables, including pasta, rice, polenta, cous cous and gnocchi. These sort of dishes have been given a bad wrap in recent years, but they are nutritious and well….pretty tasty! Lesson One included, Ricotta & Spinach Cannelloni with BĂ©chamel, Parsley Pappardelle with Roast Pumpkin and Cherry Tomatoes and Rice Pilaff (two fs or one… the jury’s out!). This was not only such an enjoyable class to cook, each of the three dishes were delicious!

As the pasta had to rest, we started with this. The rule of thumb with pasta making is 100g flour to 1 egg. The best flour to use for pasta is triple 0 (000) due to it’s strong elastic gluten. In class we used bakers flour, which is also a strong flour. I frequently make pasta at home and use 000 flour and found the Bakers Flour made a slightly ‘tighter’ dough, but the end product was still good. Another difference to what I am used to is the addition of olive oil to the dough. I didn’t add as much as the recipe asked for but I think the different flour did require what I added.

Whilst the pasta rested I made the bĂ©chamel for the cannelloni. I first made a white roux and added the hot milk which had been steeped with an onion cloute (an onion studded with cloves) and a bay leaf. Once it was beaten to a smooth consistency I topped the pan with a buttered cartouche and popped in the oven at 160 degree C. My bĂ©chamel was thick not overly…a lot of the class added cream to theirs to thin it down but the finished product didn’t hold form when it baked and mine did.

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Bechamel under a cartouche

I then turned my attention to the Pilaff Rice…. or is that Pilaf? The recipe and the class task breakdown sheets had it as Pilaff, but Wikipedia and various other recipes on-line spells it Pilaf… what ever the spelling it’s dead easy to make, takes no time and is delicious (recipe below). We made it in the oven and cooked it under a buttered cartouche but the recipe simply stated it needed to be covered, so a lid would work just as well. I have seen this made with the addition of toasted almonds, sultanas & sometimes with spice such as cayenne or saffron. When plating I made a rookie mistake, as I was rushing, and when moulding the rice I didn’t pack the dariole mould tightly enough. As a result my dome of rice pilaff doesn’t look as tidy as it should….see chefs version compared to mine. At home I would just tip it out and redo, but there is simply no time in class. I kick myself several times each lesson as I make silly mistakes when I know better! It just goes to show that the pressure in the kitchen can lead to slip ups…it’s best to learn from them as move on.

Moving onto the pasta, first I made the cannelloni. There was an extra chef in the kitchen today who was roaming around observing and offering some advice as he went. He was very helpful re the guiding of the pasta through the machine. It is something that I have struggled with at home…..who knew you had to ‘drive the pasta’ to ensure straight edges?! Once the pasta sheets, the bĂ©chamel & the ricotta and spinach filling were ready, it was a simple task of assembly. I covered the bottom of the baking container with some bĂ©chamel, piped the spinach and ricotta filling onto the pasta sheet, rolled and cut it and placed the cannelloni on top of the bĂ©chamel layer. When I had completed the layer of cannelloni I covered it with bĂ©chamel and topped it with cheese. These were baked until golden.

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Canneloni ready to bake


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Finished Cannelloni

Last dish of the day was the Parsley Pappardelle with Roast Pumpkin and Cherry Tomatoes. This is a quick and pretty dish to make once you have the pasta made and the pumpkin roasted. The sauce is simply finely diced onion (2 tbsp) and crushed garlic (2 cloves) cooked but not coloured. Toss in about 8 – 10 halved cherry tomatoes, the roasted diced pumpkin (150g) and a hand full of parsley leaves. Cook through and add a little of the pasta water from the Pappardelle and a squeeze of lemon juice. Taste and season as required. Add the cooked pasta and toss through the sauce until coated. Serve with a drizzle of olive oil and shaved parmesan. Lunch!


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Preparing the Pumpkin and Cherry Tomatoes

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Parsley Pappardelle with Roasted Pumpkin & Cherry Tomatoes

Next week we work with polenta, a cake with fruit and curd and a savoury dish with mushrooms. So far these have been my favourite recipes to cook. Hope you pop by next week to see how I am going.

Bon Appetit

Kathryn đŸ’™đŸ‘©â€đŸł

Pilaf Rice
Prep Time
10 mins
Cook Time
25 mins
Total Time
35 mins

A buttery rice accompaniment - just right for a curry or a braised/stewed meat dish. You could add to the basic recipe; toasted almonds to the completed dish, Cayenne pepper, Saffron or add some sultanas before popping it in the oven to cook.

Course: Side Dish
Cuisine: Indian
Keyword: Rice
Servings: 5 portions
  • 40 grams Butter - unsalted
  • 1/2 Onion - small dice (brunoise)
  • 1 clove Garlic - finely minced or crushed
  • 150 grams Long Grain Rice
  • 225 mls White Stock - hot
  • 1 Bay Leaf (dried)
  • pinch Salt
  • pinch White Pepper
  1. Preheat oven to 160 degree celsius (325F).

  2. Melt the butter over medium heat and gently sauté the onion and garlic without colouring.

  3. Add the rice and ensure all grains are coated with the butter.

  4. Add the hot stock and bay leaf and bring to boil.

  5. Cover and cook in preheated oven for approximately 20 mins or until cooked.

  6. When done, season to taste. 

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Lesson 3 – Stocks, Sauces and Soups. Beef ConsommĂ©.

Today is the last class of ‘Stocks, Sauces and Soups and not only did I learn how to make perfectly clear consommĂ©, I also got a great work out for my arms!!!  We made a Caramelised Garlic, Tomato  & Orange Sauce ( not something I would rush to make again but unfortunately is included in my end of semester assessment), Macaroni & Cheese, so as to practice making a white roux, BĂ©chamel & Mornay Sauce, Beef ConsommĂ©, Mayonnaise and Hollandaise (the last two is where the arm workout occurred). We also clarified butter which we used in the Hollandaise (which challenged me no end).

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Lesson 3 of Stocks, Sauces & Soups

One of the bloggers I follow, ‘Bespoke Traveller’ (check out Atreyee’s lovely and thoughtful blog), wondered how I managed to take photos in such a hectic class….this week I didn’t manage it very well I’m afraid, there was just so much going on that I was just too busy. First, as always, was mise en place, which is so important to every service and can also make home cooking easier. From there we went into making the sauces and the consommĂ©, whilst along the way continuing to revise what we had learnt in the previous lessons.

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Misen Place

This lesson, and all future lessons, require multi tasking which is essential when cooking in a commercial kitchen. We started the roux for the BĂ©chamel first and cooked it off in the oven under a cartouche as we did in last weeks lesson. Whilst this cooked we made the Garlic, Tomato and Orange Sauce and as stated above, I won’t be rushing to make this sauce at home, I don’t think it really works, even with the addition of a little sugar to balance the acidity it is unusual to say the least! The BĂ©chamel was made into Mornay with the addition of cheese (Tasty & Parmesan cheese, egg yolks & butter). To the Mornay we added cooked Macaroni, topped with more cheese and baked it until browned. My daughter went through a Mac and Cheese phase when growing up…none of it as good as this though as it was all from a packet đŸ˜±

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I love homemade mayonnaise. This cold emulsion sauce is so versatile, you can make Sauce Tartare & Aioli to name only 2 derivative sauces and it’s chalk and cheese when compared to shop bought mayonnaise. Today we made mayonnaise by hand, just a bowl and a whisk… it was the first work out for the arms in the lesson. I usually make mayonnaise in the food processor and think I will continue to make it this way as it’s every bit as good as whisking it by hand. Many commercial kitchens don’t make mayonnaise, rather they buy it ready made due to food safety issues, being an egg based sauce. Once made we tossed the sauce for the same reason.

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Hand whisked Mayonnaise

As Hollandaise Sauce is needed to be made in our end of semester assessment for Eggs Benedict, Chef decided to replace the planned Bernaise Sauce with a Hollandaise …. my nemesis as it turns out 😳. Can I say…this is not a fun sauce to make! I don’t have a photo of it as I was quite stressed at the time, but let it be known I need to practice, practice, practice so as I can nail this in my end of year assessment. You need clarified butter for Hollandaise and Bernaise Sauce, easy peasy, it’s what comes after that’s the hard part! I wasn’t whisking quickly enough and found the addition of a little hot water brought it together in the end… I see a lot of Eggs Benedict in Aron’s future.

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Clarified butter ready to strain

Lastly, the beef consommĂ© in which we used a beef stock made in a previous lesson. This lesson was really about the clarification & enrichment process which turns a good beef stock into a tasty beef consommĂ©. I knew the basics of clarification but had never done it before, I will going forward as it was delightful, straight forward and hey…who doesn’t love a classic? We garnished ours with some julliened vegetable quickly poached in some beef stock. When researching garnishes for the consommĂ© I came across the ConsommĂ© de Bouef Royale of Michele Roux…. beautiful and something I will be trying soon…perhaps minus the edible gold leaf.

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Beef Consomme

I need to turn my sights to finding a restaurant/cafe to take me on to start the mandatory practical part of my course, I need to complete 48 periods of service between now and the end of the course to qualify. I have a few ideas on who to approach and will share progress as I work through this part. Next week we start on the next block of lessons, Vegetables, Fruit, Eggs and Farinaceous Dishes…. pasta and rice in my future! See you next week!

Bon Appetit

Kathryn đŸ’™đŸ‘©â€đŸł

Beef Consommé
Prep Time
20 mins
Cook Time
2 hrs
Total Time
2 hrs 20 mins

Love the technique of making a 'raft ' for clarification.

Course: Soup
Cuisine: French
Servings: 1 Litre
  • 250 gram Lean Beef
  • 4 egg whites
  • 1/2 Onion - rough dice
  • 50 gram Celery - diced
  • 50 gram Carrot - dice
  • 3 Peppercorns
  • 1 Bay leaf - dried
  • 1/4 Sprig fresh Thyme
  • 1/4 Bunch Parsley stems
  • 1500 mls Cold beef stock - white or brown
  1. Roughly cut the vegetables and put into robot coup (for processor) with peppercorns, bay leaf parsley stems and thyme. Blend until fine.

  2. Add the lean mince to the vegetable and herbs and blend.

  3. Remove the meat, vegetable and herbs to a bowl and add the egg whites. mix until unified. This is the 'clarification'.

  4. Put the cold stock on a low heat and add the clarification. Stir until it reaches 60 degrees celsius - this prevents the protein from sticking to the bottom.

  5. Allow the liquid to come to a low simmer and DON'T STIR. The clarification will coagulate and rise to the top and any impurities in the stock will be trapped in what is called 'the raft'

  6. Gently simmer for 1 - 2 hrs 

  7. Using a ladle carefully remove the liquid without breaking the raft and pass through a chinois lined with muslin or a filter paper. 

  8. Remove any fat. This can be by allowing to cool and lifting off any fat or dabbing liquid with absorbent paper. 

  9. Taste and adjust seasoning  - serve in appropriate bowl with garnish of choice. 

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